Background and Aim of the Study: Congenital heart disease is the most common congenital defect among infants born in the United States. Within the first year of life, 1 in 4 of these infants will need surgery. Only one generation removed from an overall mortality of 14%, many changes have been introduced into the field. Have these changes measurably improved outcomes? Methods: The literature search was conducted through PubMed MEDLINE and Google Scholar from inception to October 31, 2021. Ultimately, 78 publications were chosen for inclusion. Results: The outcome of overall mortality has experienced continuous improvements in the modern era of the specialty despite the performance of more technically demanding surgeries on patients with complex comorbidities. This modality does not account for case-mix, however. In turn, clinical outcomes have not been consistent from center to center. Furthermore, variation in practice between institutions has also been documented. A recurring theme in the literature is a movement towards standardization and universalization. Examples include mortality risk-stratification that has allowed direct comparison of outcomes between programs and improved definitions of morbidities which provide an enhanced framework for diagnosis and management. Conclusions: Overall mortality is now below 3%, which suggests that more patients are surviving their interventions than in any previous era in congenital cardiac surgery. Focus has transitioned from survival to improving the quality of life in the survivors by decreasing the incidence of morbidity and associated long-term effects. With the transformation towards standardization and interinstitutional collaboration, future advancements are expected.
Background: This study was conducted to evaluate the surgical results of the arterial switch operation for Taussig-Bing variants, at a single institution in a lower-middle income country. Methods: Between June 2010 and December 2018, all consecutive patients diagnosed with Taussig-Bing variants who underwent the arterial switch operation and ventricular septal defect closure were included in the study. Results: A total of 72 patients of Taussig-Bing variants who underwent arterial switch operation and ventricular septal defect closure. There were 10 early deaths (13.9%) and 2 late deaths (2.8%). Intraoperative ventricular septal defect enlargement [hazard ratio (HR) 7.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.1294-16.7167; P < 0.001], secondary aortic cross clamping (HR 28.38, 95% CI 4.8427-166.3484; P < 0.001), post-operative pneumonia (HR 5.64, 95% CI 1.2724-24.9917; P = 0.023), and post-operative sepsis (HR 5.28, 95% CI 1.3512-20.6553; p = 0.017) were risk factors for overall mortality by competing risk analysis. Sixty patients (83.3%) required septoparietal trabeculation division/resection during the arterial switch operation in an attempt to avoid right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. The reoperation rate for right ventricular outflow tract obstruction at last follow up was 6% (3 patients). The estimated freedom from reoperation for right ventricular outflow tract obstruction at 1 year, 5 year and 9 year was 98.3%, 91.9% and 91.9 , respectively. Conclusions: The results of arterial switch operation for Taussig-Bing variants were satisfactory in the operative setting of a lower-middle income country, and performing extensive septoparietal trabeculation division might reduce the reintervention rate for right ventricular outflow tract obstruction in these patients.
Comprehensive clinical and imaging-based surveillance represents a fundamental aspect in the management of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs), affording the opportunity to identify intermediate-sized TAAs before the onset of worrying symptoms or devastating acute aortic dissection/rupture. Currently, size-based indices are favoured as the major determinants driving patient selection for surgery, as supported by aortic guidelines, although it is recognised that smaller sub-threshold TAAs may still confer substantial risks. Prophylactic aortic surgery can be offered within set timeframes at dedicated aortic centres with excellent outcomes, to mitigate the threat of acute aortic complications associated with repeatedly deferred intervention. In this commentary, we discuss a recent article from the Journal of Cardiac Surgery which highlights important socio-economic disparities in TAA surveillance and follow-up.
Response to Letter to Editor Regarding: Equivalent outcomes with minimally invasive and sternotomy mitral valve repair for degenerative mitral valve disease. J Card Surg. 2021; 36:2636-43.Authors: Ramsey S. Elsayed, MD MS1, Brittany Abt, MD1, and Michael E. Bowdish, MD MS1,2Institutions and Affiliations: 1Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA2Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of USC, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USAAddress for Correspondence: Dr. Michael E. Bowdish, Associate Professor of Surgery and Preventive Medicine; Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of USC; University of Southern California; 1520 San Pablo Street, HCC II Suite 4300; Los Angeles, CA 90033; Phone: (323)-442-5849; Email: Michael.Bowdish@med.usc.eduConflicts of Interest/Competing Interests: NoneFunding: Research reported in this publication was supported by the Department of Surgery of the Keck School of Medicine of USC. MEB is partially supported by UM1-HL11794 from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health.To the editor,We would like to thank Song et. al. for their letter regarding our recent publication in the Journal of Cardiac Surgery titled “Equivalent outcomes with minimally invasive and sternotomy mitral valve repair for degenerative mitral valve disease”1. They asked some important questions and brought up valuable points that are worthy of discussion.Regarding the selection criteria we use for operative approach for mitral valve repair operations, it is primarily based on collective surgeon-patient decision making. However, patients with a previous history of cardiac surgery or peripheral vascular disease (which would render peripheral cannulation difficult), and those in need of concomitant cardiac procedures such as coronary artery bypass grafting, aortic replacement, or biatrial ablation, are not offered a minimally invasive approach. Regarding the role of artificial chordae (neochordae) in mitral valvuloplasty, we use elongated polytetrafluorethylene made of interrupted GoreTex (Gore-Tex, WL Gore and Associates, Inc., Flagstaff, AZ) sutures placed in a horizontal mattress fashion. These neochordae are routinely used to repair elongated or ruptured chordae causing mitral valve prolapse or regurgitation.2 Typically, the neochordae are used in the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve. The etiologies of degenerative mitral valve disease are comprised of myxomatous degeneration of the MV, fibroelastic deficiency including so called Barlow’s valves, and dystrophic calcification of the mitral annulus.3 While the etiologies are not mutually exclusive and may overlap, myxomatous degeneration and fibroelastic deficiencies resulting in severe, symptomatic MR were the most common indications for operation in our patient population. As mentioned by Song and colleagues, the success and durability of MVr can vary depending on etiology, particularly on how much of the valve apparatus is affected by pathology. While not examined in this paper specifically, previous papers (including Tatum et al. conducted at our institution), have demonstrated that anterior leaflet repair is significantly associated with recurrence and progression of MR after surgery, whereas isolated posterior repair is protective.3,4The operative team was similar in all cases, whereas the senior author (VAS) performed over 85% of the total procedures and nearly 100% of the minimally invasive procedures. The success rate of the minimally invasive cohort was 100% (as defined by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons). There was one conversion to conventional sternotomy in the minimally invasive cohort (.003%) for bleeding control.Finally, Song and colleagues are to be congratulated on their robotic and thoracoscopic mitral valvuloplasty results. Their 10-year total robotic mitral valve valvuloplasty results showing excellent cardiac function with 93% of patients in NYHA classes I and II.5 Furthermore, their early thoracoscopic results were very good with one operative mortality and only two reoperations demonstrating thoracoscopic mitral valvuloplasty is a technically feasible, safe, effective, and reproducible technique.6References:Bowdish ME, Elsayed RS, Tatum JM, Cohen RG, Mack WJ, Abt B, Yin V, Barr ML, Starnes VA. Equivalent outcomes with minimally invasive and sternotomy mitral valve repair for degenerative mitral valve disease. J Card Surg. 2021 Aug;36(8):2636-2643. PMID: 33908645.Bortolotti U, Milano AD, Frater RW. Mitral valve repair with artificial chordae: a review of its history, technical details, long-term results, and pathology. Ann Thorac Surg. 2012 Feb;93(2):684-91. PMID: 22153050.David, Tirone E. ”Durability of mitral valve repair for mitral regurgitation due to degenerative mitral valve disease.” Annals of cardiothoracic surgery 4.5 (2015): 417.Tatum, James M., et al. ”Outcomes after mitral valve repair: a single-center 16-year experience.” The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 154.3 (2017): 822-830.Zhao H, Gao C, Yang M, Wang Y, Kang W, Wang R, Zhang H. Surgical effect and long-term clinical outcomes of robotic mitral valve replacement: 10-year follow-up study. J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino). 2021 Apr;62(2):162-168. PMID: 33302613.Cui H, Zhang L, Wei S, Li L, Ren T, Wang Y, Jiang S. Early clinical outcomes of thoracoscopic mitral valvuloplasty: a clinical experience of 100 consecutive cases. Cardiovasc Diagn Ther. 2020 Aug;10(4):841-848. PMCID: PMC7487400.
Multiple ventricular septal defects (m-VSD), are a challenging clinical problem. m-VSD can be onerous to manage. Besides the inability to close all the defects in one operative setting due to inadequate visualization, previously undetected defects may become clinically apparent after the closure of the dominant defects, leading to inadequate ventricular septation. This increases the morbidity from the progression of pulmonary hypertension, persistence of congestive cardiac failure, higher incidence of postoperative heart block, and the need for reoperations.
Mitral valve repair (MVR) is undisputedly associated with better clinical and functional outcomes than any other type of valve substitute. Conventional mitral valve surgery in dedicated high-volume centers can assure excellent results in terms of mortality and freedom from mitral regurgitation (MR) recurrence but requires cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and cardioplegic heart arrest. Trying to replicate the percentage of success of surgical MVR is the aim of all new transcatheter mitral dedicated devices. In particular transapical beating-heart mitral valve repair by artificial chordae implantation with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) guidance is an expanding field. The safety and feasibility of the procedure have already been largely demonstrated with Neochord and more recently with Harpoon systems. Wang et al. present the outcomes of the first-in-human experience using a novel artificial chordae implantation device, the Mitralstitch system. Despite a quite small cohort of only 10 patients treated, 1-year results are satisfying and comparable to the early experience with former devices (4 patients with moderate or more MR recurrence). The comparison with surgical MVR is still unfavorable and requires further studies and significant procedure improvement. However, the device permits the treatment of anterior and posterior leaflets prolapse and performs quite easily edge-to-edge reparation. It will be interesting to evaluate longer follow-up in larger cohorts of patients as well as the possibility to shift to the transfemoral approach.
Nitric oxide has been used to treat respiratory failure in post-pediatric cardiac surgical patients. High frequency oscillator ventilation is used to rescue infants who have failed conventional ventilation. In this issue a study is presented showing the benefit of combining these two therapies for improved outcomes in infants with hypoxic respiratory failure after congenital heart surgery
The surgical ventricular restoration is an evolution of treatment of left ventricle aneurysm. The aetioloy of left ventricle aneurysm and the dilated post AMI cardiomiopaty is the same; the difference is in the extension of scarred tissue and in the quality of remote zone. Because in this anatomical situation the geometry of left left ventricle can be deeply affected, it can very difficult to have point of reference as position of apex or papillary mussles. Using a sizer and combine different surgical thecniques allow to rebuilt a ventricle with appropriate volume and shape.
Robotic totally endoscopic techniques to perform the LITA to LAD graft, coupled with PCI, provides the least invasive option to achieve hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR). Shorter hospital stay and reduced need for blood transfusions have been consistently being reported by several studies along with similar long-term outcomes. Considerable variations exist in the definition of HCR which can be single or two-staged with surgical revascularization being carried out after PCI or vice versa. Variations also exist with respect to usage of cardiopulmonary bypass, surgical incisions, and use of minimally invasive robotic techniques. The different strategies of HCR do not lead to similar outcomes and the findings of one strategy cannot be extrapolated to the entire group. Studies reporting different strategies of HCR, should ideally provide more granular data when reporting outcomes.
Patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) are at increased risk of valvular regurgitation compared to their counterparts with a tri-leaflet aortic valve. There is now increasing emphasis to offer BAV repair to mitigate the risks of prosthesis-related complications, including thromboembolism, haemorrhage and endocarditis, as well as structural valve deterioration and future re-operation with conventional valve replacement, particularly in younger populations. Furthermore, over the preceding two decades, our greater understanding of the functional anatomy of the BAV, pathophysiological mechanisms of BAV insufficiency and the development of a functional classification of aortic regurgitation have significantly contributed to the evolution of aortic valve reconstructive surgery. In this commentary, we discuss a recent article from the Journal of Cardiac Surgery comparing external annuloplasty and subcommissural annuloplasty as techniques for BAV repair.
Background: Uncomplicated Stanford Type B aortic dissection (un-TBAD) is characterised by a tear in the aorta distal to the left subclavian artery without ascending aorta and arch involvement. Optimised cardiovascular control (blood pressure and heart rate) is the current gold standard treatment according to current international guidelines. However, emerging evidence indicates that Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR) is both safe and effective in the treatment of un-TBAD with improved long-term survival outcomes in combination with optimal medical therapy (OMT) relative to OMT alone. However, the optimal timeframe for intervention is not entirely clarified. Aims: This review critically addresses current state-of-the-art comparing TEVAR with OMT and corresponding clinical outcomes for un-TBAD based on timing of intervention. Methods: We carried out a comprehensive literature search on multiple electronic databases including PUBMED and Scopus in order to collate all research evidence on timing of TEVAR in uncomplicated Type B aortic dissection. Results: TEVAR has proven to be a safe and effective treatment for un-TBAD in combination with OMT through comparable survival outcomes, improved aortic remodelling, and relatively low periprocedural added risks. Though the timing of intervention remains controversial, it is becoming clear that performing TEVAR during the subacute phase of un-TBAD yields better outcomes compared to earlier and delayed (>90 days) intervention. Conclusions: Further research is required into both short and long-term outcomes of TEVAR in addition to its optimal therapeutic window for un-TBAD. With stronger evidence, TEVAR is likely to be adopted as the gold-standard intervention for un-TBAD with definitive timeframe guidelines.
The authors present an revolutionary study aiming to evaluate the effect of alterations in potassium concentrations in transfused packed red blood cells (PRBC) on neonate and infant potassium levels after congenital cardiac surgery. By establishing a strict protocol which restricts the rate of transfusion, the age of the transfused PRBC, and not transfusing a PRBC with a potassium level above 15 mmol/L, they accomplished to suggest a safe and easy way for preventing transfusion associated hyperkalemia.
Background: Manouguian aortic root enlargement (ARE) has been a standard root enlargement procedure to assist in patients with a small annular size. We describe a modification to the Manouguian ARE similar to Yang et al. This approach could serve as an alternate technique for performing ARE; to date only case reports have defined this approach and no studies have evaluated its efficacy or safety. Methods: A retrospective case series was performed on patients who underwent ARE for surgical aortic valve replacement via the modified Manouguian procedure at a single institution. Thirteen patients were identified between 2015-2021, and all surgeries were performed by a single operator. Data were collected via the Society of Thoracic Surgeons database and chart review. The primary outcome was difference in valve size after the procedure. Results: The most common indication for surgery was aortic stenosis (12, 92%), with the most common etiology being degenerative calcification (7, 54%). Congenital bicuspid or uni-cuspid valves were identified in 5 (38%) patients. The majority (10, 77%) of patients received a mechanical valve. This procedure was successfully performed in all 13 of the patients. Additionally, 13 of the 13 patients (100%) were upsized to a satisfactory valve size based on pre-operative echocardiography sizing. Conclusions: The modified Manouguian aortic enlargement technique can be safely and effectively used as an aortic enlargement procedure in a broad sample of patients.
More than 1.6 million Americans have at least moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation, yet fewer than 8000 tricuspid valve operations are performed annually in the USA.The under-treatment for isolated tricuspid regurgitation might be related to the fact that in the past years no clear guidelines on how and when to treat tricuspid regurgitation were issued. Here, we discuss the meta-analysis by Sarris-Michopoulos et al, and we comment what is available in literature on diagnosis and decision making for tricuspid valve intervention.
The authors present an excellent retrograde analysis of a rare condition of a phenomenal number of cases and their surgical outcomes. A majority of the studies in published literature are anecdotal case reports which are a rare and dreadful entity. A comprehensive countrywide view of the UK National Adult Cardiac Surgery Audit database is presented in this study. This study represents the changing trends in the risk factors, management strategies, and outcomes of ventricular septal rupture for over 23 years in a nutshell.