Background: Type A aortic dissection (TAAD) involves a tear in the intimal layer of the thoracic aorta proximal to the left subclavian artery, and hence, carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity and requires urgent intervention. This dissection can extend into the main coronary arteries. Coronary artery involvement in TAAD can either be due to retrograde extension of the dissection flap into the coronaries or compression and/or blockage of these vessels by the dissection flap, possibly causing myocardial ischaemia. Due to the emergent nature of TAAD, coronary involvement is often missed during diagnosis, thereby delaying the required intervention. Aims: The main scope of this review is to summarise the literature on the incidence, mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of coronary artery involvement in TAAD. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using multiple electronic databases, including PubMed, Ovid, Scopus and Embase, to identify and extract relevant studies. Results: Incidence of coronary artery involvement in TAAD was seldom reported in the literature, however, some studies have described patients diagnosed either preoperatively, intraoperatively following aortic clamping, or even during autopsy. Among the few studies that reported on this matter, the treatment choice for coronary involvement in TAAD was varied, with the majority revascularizing the coronary arteries using coronary artery bypass grafting or direct local repair of the vessels. It is well-established that coronary artery involvement in TAAD adds to the already high mortality and morbidity associated with this disease. Lastly, the right main coronary artery was often more implicated than the left. Conclusion: This review reiterates the significance of an accurate diagnosis and timely and effective interventions to improve prognosis. Finally, further large cohort studies and longer trials are needed to reach a definitive consensus on the best approach for coronary involvement in TAAD.
Despite advances in technologies and clinical experience, conduction disorders, after TAVR or SAVR, represent the weak point of these procedures, requiring permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) till 37.7% of patients in TAVR recipients. The role of PPI in TAVR and SAVR remains controversial in mid- and long-term outcomes. Indeed, many studies have been published with contradictory results, leaving doubts rather than certainties.
A larger use of mitral valve repair is recommended in case of mitral regurgitation. Anterior leaflet repair is generally more difficult than posterior. Presence of atrial fibrillation or dysfunction of left ventricle appears to be independent preoperative factors of failure in case of involvement of the anterior leaflet. In experienced hands anterior leaflet repair can be effective and safe and should theoretically not limit a conservative technique instead of a replacement. This would therefore lead to being more aggressive in the treatment of this pathological condition in the earlier stages of the disease.
Heart failure and atrial fibrillation are often associated. Both conditions share pathophysiology and risk factor; as an example, atrial fibrillation may be regarded as either the ‘cause’ or the ‘consequence’ of heart failure. If coexistent, they are associated to very poor outcome. With this in mind, finding effective therapy for patients presenting with both heart failure and atrial fibrillation remains of paramount importance. There are also little evidence of the role and benefit of surgical atrial fibrillation ablation concomitant to heart surgery (i.e., coronary or valve surgery).
Background: The present study aimed to explore the relationship between serum anion gap (AG) and long-term mortality in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods: Clinical variables were extracted among patients undergoing CABG from Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III (MIMIC III) database. The primary outcome was four-year mortality following CABG. An optimal cut-off value of AG was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The Kaplan-Meier (K-M) analysis and multivariate Cox hazard analysis were performed to investigate the prognostic value of AG in long-term mortality after CABG. In order to eliminate the bias between different groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was conducted to validate the findings. Results: The optimal cut-off value of AG was 17.00 mmol/L. Then a total of 3,162 eligible patients enrolled in this study were divided into a high AG group (≥17.00, n=1,022) and a low AG group (<17.00, n=2,140). A lower survival rate was identified in the high AG group based on K-M curve (p<0.001). Compared with patients in the low AG group, patients in the high AG group had an increased risk of long-term mortality [One-year: HR 2.309, 95% CI (1.672-3.187), P<0.001; two-year: HR 1.813, 95% CI (1.401-2.346), P<0.001; three-year: HR 1.667, 95% CI (1.341-2.097), P<0.001; four-year: HR 1.710, 95% CI (1.401-2.087), P<0.001] according to multivariate Cox hazard analysis. And further validation of above results were consistent in the matched cohort after PSM. Conclusions: The AG is an independent predictive factor for long-term all-cause mortality in patients following CABG, where a high AG value is associated with an increased mortality.
Background: Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is one of the most common congenital cardiac defects, However, in some cases VSD sites are difficult to expose due to obstruction from chordal attachments and leaflets of the tricuspid valve (TV)(#ref-0006). To systematically review the efficacy and safety of tricuspid valve detachment,( TVD) versus conventional surgical repair ( non-TVD) in the treatment of ventricular septal defect ( VSD) ．This article is aimed to compare the many outcomes from existing studies and provide evidence regarding the necessity of performing TVD. Methods:We searched the following databases: PubMed via NCBI, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (no date restriction),Medline via Ovid (from 1966 to May 2020); Embase via Ovid (no date restriction) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for studies comparing the efficacy of tricuspid valve detachment (TVD) and other surgical techniques in VSD repair. Cardiopulmonary bypass time, Cross-clamp time; postoperative complications including residual defect ,Postoperative atrioventricular block ,Implantation of pacemakers, tricuspid regurgitation ;Length of stay, Length of ICU stay were analyzed． Results: Only 9 studies were included after selection (Table 1), including 7 retrospective cohort studies, 1 respective cohort study and 1 prospective observational stud，a patient pool of 1404 patients with 374 underwent TVD and 1030 underwent non-TVD procedures,met the inclusion criteria．Meta analysis has drawn to the following conclusions. Firstly, TVD prolongs CPB time (MD=7.75, 95% CI=2.60-12.89, p=0.003) and cross-clamp time(MD=7.77, 95% CI=4.76-10.78, p<0.001) compared with non-TVD techniques in VSD repair surgeries. Secondly, no significant difference exists in LOS, length of ICU stay, postoperative atrioventricular block, implantation of pacemakers, incidence of ≥mild TR postoperatively and at discharge, as well as incidence of ≥small residual VSD after surgery and during follow-up( all P ＞ 0. 05). Thirdly, application of TVD increases the risk of TR during follow-up(OR=2.42, 95% CI=1.55-3.76, p<0.001). Conclusion: VSD closure using TVD technique results in longer CPB and cross-clamp time, and increases risk of TR during follow-up. TVD provides equally viable and safe alternative in treating VSD．
Being able to perform surgery first-hand represents the backbone of every training program and the key to successful development of the new generation of skilful surgeons. In this issue of the Journal, Comanici et al. presented a thorough systematic summary of the current evidence on the outcomes of cardiothoracic operations performed by trainees.1 Taking for granted the importance of training young surgeons, it is paramount to identify and tackle any potential obstacles hindering the surgical growth of a trainee.
Background: The hemodynamics of most prosthetic valves are often inferior to that of the normal native valve, and a significant proportion of patients undergoing surgical (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) have high residual transaortic pressure gradients due to prosthesis–patient mismatch (PPM). Since the experience with TAVR has increased and long-term outcomes are reported, a close look at the PPM literature is required in light of new evidence. Methods: For this review, we searched the Embase, Medline, and Cochrane databases from 2000 to 2022. Articles reporting PPM as an outcome following aortic valve replacements were identified and reviewed. Results: The impact of PPM on clinical outcomes aortic valve replacement has not been clear since multiple studies failed to report PPM incidence. However, the PPM after SAVR vary greater than after TAVR, ranging from 8% to almost 80% in SAVR and from 24%-35% in TAVR. Incidence of severe PPM following redo SAVR is ranging from 2 to 9% and following valve-in-valve TAVR is from 14 to 33%, however, while PPM is higher in valve-in-valve TAVR, patients had better survival rates. Conclusions: The gap between valve performance and clinical outcomes in TAVR and SAVR could be reduced by carefully selecting patients for either treatment option. Understanding predictors of PPM can add to the safety, effectiveness, and increased survival benefit of both TAVR and SAVR.
The Vasoactive-Inotropic Score at 48 hours is a good surrogate marker for adverse postoperative events in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and is limited by its ability to delineate the underlying cause for an unfavourable clinical course. Thus, other predictors such as the Technical Performance Score are likely to highlight the underlying cause and can be used to improve outcomes. However, patients with a high postoperative VIS score at 48 hours may benefit from closer longer-term follow for outcomes such as late survival, functional class, and need for reoperation.
Background: The most worrisome complications in patients supported by left ventricular assist device (LVAD) are pump thrombosis, embolism, and bleeding. The actual rate of these events in patients with sickle-cell disease (SCD) has not well investigated. The aim of our study is to evaluate the outcomes of LVAD implantation in patients with sickle-cell hemoglobinopathy at our institution. Methods: This retrospective, observational, single-center study was conducted on patients with sickle-cell trait (SCT), who underwent LVAD implantation using the HeartMate3 LVAD. Results: LVAD devices were implanted in four patients with SCT. All procedures were performed successfully. All patients had uneventful post-implant course. Overall, the mean follow-up time was 25 months (range 21-28 months) and showed an unremarkable post-implant course. There was a significant improvement in hematological markers over the follow-up period. Conclusions: Despite the limited numbers of patients enrolled in this study, our findings indicate that LVAD surgery is safe in SCD patients and offers remarkable clinical improvement. Further studies are needed to provide more evidence regarding this type of patients undergoing LVAD implantation.
Objectives: New temperature management concepts of moderate and mild hypothermic circulatory arrest during aortic arch surgery have gained weight over profound cooling. Comparisons of all temperature levels have rarely been performed. We performed direct and indirect comparisons of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) (≤20°C), moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest (MHCA) (20.1°C to 25°C), and mild hypothermic circulatory arrest (mild HCA) (≥25.1°C) in a network meta-analysis. Methods: The literature was systematically searched for all papers published through February 2022 reporting on clinical outcomes after aortic arch surgery utilizing DHCA, MHCA and mild HCA. The primary outcome was operative morality. The secondary outcomes were postoperative stroke and acute kidney failure (AKI). Results: A total of 34 studies were included, with a total of 12 370 patients. DHCA was associated with significantly higher postoperative incidence of stroke when compared with MHCA (odds ratio (OR), 1.46, 95% (confidence interval) CI, 1.19-1.78) and mild HCA: (OR, 1.50, 95% CI, 1.14-1.98). Furthermore, DHCA and MHCA were associated with higher operative mortality when compared with mild HCA (OR 1.71, 95% CI, 1.23-2.39 and OR 1.50, 95% CI, 1.12-2.00, respectively). Separate analysis of randomized and propensity score matched studies showed sustained increased risk of stroke with DHCA in contrast to MHCA and mild HCA (OR, 1.61, 95% CI, 1.18-2.20, P-value = 0.0029 and OR, 1.74, 95% CI, 1.09-2.77, P-value = 0.019). Conclusions: In the included studies, the moderate to mild hypothermia strategies were associated with decreased operative mortality and the risk of postoperative stroke. Large-scale prospective studies are warranted to further explore appropriate temperature management for the treatment of aortic arch pathologies.
Background: Acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD) is a life-threatening medical condition requiring urgent surgical attention. It is estimated that 50% of ATAAD die within 24 hours of onset, with the mortality rate is increasing by 1-2% every additional hour without prompt intervention. A variety of ATAAD surgical repair techniques exist which has sparked controversy within the literature, with the main two strategies being proximal aortic replacement (PAR) and total arch replacement (TAR). Nevertheless, the question of which of these two strategies if the more optimal is still debatable. Aims: This commentary aims to discuss the recent study by Sa and colleagues which presents a pooled analysis of Kaplan-Meier-derived individual patient data from studies with follow-up comparing aggressive (TAR) and conservative (PAR) approaches to manage ATAAD patients. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar, EMBASE and Scopus in order to collate the relevant research evidence. Results: The more aggressive TAR approach for treating ATAAD seems to yield more favourable results including more optimal long-term survival as well as a lower need for reoperation. The frozen elephant trunk (FET) technique can be considered the mainstay TAR technique. Conclusion: It is valid to conclude that TAR with FET is the superior strategy for managing ATAAD patients.
Tracheo-innominate fistula (TIF) is a reported complication of tracheostomy that typically presents with a herald bleed. The phenomenon of an aorto-tracheal fistula has similar pathology and presentation to TIF, but no standard surgical repair. In the manuscript by Musgrove et al. in the Journal of Cardiac Surgery the authors propose a surgical treatment, that is reproduceable for the correct anatomic configuration - an ascending and aortic arch replacement, pericardial patch of the tracheal defect, and omental flap coverage to prevent infection. While this intervention seems a large undertaking for a small defect, it is a safe and durable repair.
Frozen elephant trunk (FET) has in recent times become a mainstay for total arch replacement (TAR) in aortovascular surgery and is indicated in order to treat a spectrum of complex aortic pathologies. However, despite associated excellent post-operative results it is incredibly important to recognise potential adverse complications such as negative aortic remodelling, endoleak and distal stent-graft induced new entry so that outcomes can be further improved. Below we provide commentary on a recent article in the Journal of Cardiac Surgery discussing the topic. Despite the fascinating outcomes of this systematic review and meta-analysis the heterogeneity of the literature regarding these adverse outcomes remains an issue which can only be solved with large multi-centre trials directly comparing graft types as well as indications for surgery.
anomalous pulmonary veins drain into the right side of the left atrium is an uncommon variety of anomalous pulmonary venous return. Rarely, anomalous pulmonary venous drainage combined with cor triatriatum and atrial septal defect. We presented the imaging findings of a male patient who had anomalous pulmonary venous drainage which has not previously been described.
The outcomes of the arterial switch operation have improved over a period of time with the elimination of coronary artery anatomy as a risk factor for operative mortality in some series. However, cumulatively, when all the series published so far are analyzed, two coronary variations, namely the single sinus coronary artery origin and intramural type, persist as risk factors for an adverse operative outcome.