ARTIFICIAL CHORDAE FOR ANTERIOR LEAFLET PROLAPSE: ARE ALL THE ROADS LEADING TO ROME?Antonio Maria Calafiore (a), MD, Antonio Totaro (a), MD, Sotirios Prapas (b), MD, Diego Magnano, MD (a), Stefano Guarracini (c), PhD, Massimo Di Marco (d), MD, Michele Di Mauro (c,e), PhDDepartment of Cardiovascular Diseases, Gemelli Molise, Campobasso, ItalyDivision of Cardiac Surgery A, Henry Dunant Hospital, Athens, GreeceDepartment of Cardiology, “Pierangeli” Hospital, Pescara, ItalyDepartment of Cardiology, “S Spirito” Hospital, Pescara, ItalyCardio‐Thoracic Surgery Department, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), Maastricht, The Netherlands
A 63-year-old male, with a history of coronary artery bypass grafting using bilateral internal thoracic artery grafts, underwent surgical aortic valve replacement. Avoiding the graft injury, we selected the right anterior mini-thoracotomy approach under cardiac arrest with systemic hyperkalemia with remaining bilateral internal thoracic artery grafts open. Deep hypothermia was induced to obtain more reliable myocardial protection. We believe this strategy can be considered as a therapeutic option in patients requiring aortic valve replacement but unsuitable for transcatheter aortic valve replacement.
A 57-year-old man suffered chest pain during the COVID-19 pandemic, but he delayed medical treatment due to fear of infection. Four months later, symptoms chest tightness and shortness of breath appeared. Electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed old myocardial infarction; color sonography and myocardial CT revealed apical myocardial defect. He refused surgery and percutaneous transcatheter closure, and follow-up observation. After 22 months, the symptoms of chest tightness and shortness of breath aggravated. He recovered after percutaneous transcatheter closure, and was discharged. This case shows delayed closure is one of the possible options for the patients without severe organ dysfunction or hemodynamic disturbance.
Introduction. In this prospective multicenter analysis, we aimed to investigate the predictive role of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Material and methods. 179 consecutive patients without previous PPI underwent TAVR from February 2017 to September 2021. Patients were further divided based on presence (n=48) and absence of conduction abnormalities (CAs) at hospital admission (n=131). Results . In patients with previous CAs, NLR values did not differ significantly between patients requiring PPI (n=16, 33%) and those not requiring it. In contrast, in patients with no CAs at hospital admission, NLR values measured at admission and on TAVR day were significantly higher in patients requiring PPI (n=17, 13%) (4.07±3.22 vs 3.01±1.47, p=0.025, and 10.81±7.81 vs 5.84±3.78, p=0.000, respectively). Multivariable analysis showed that NLR at TAVR day was an independent predictor of PPI in patients without CAs (OR 1.294; 95% CI 1.028-1.630; p=0.028), but not in those with previous CAs. ROC curve analysis showed that the cut point was a NLR value of >7.25. Time to PPI was delayed till 21 days in patients without CAs. Conclusions. In this prospective study, higher NLR values on the day of TAVR day were associated with an increased PPI rate in patients undergoing TAVR with no previous CAs. It is advisable, being inflammation part of the process, to prolong the time of observation for all patients without CAs till at least 21 days not to miss any new CA necessitating PPI.
Background The Organ Care System (OCS) is a revolutionary ex vivo organ perfusion technology that can potentially expand the organ retrieval range. The OCS Lung device uses packed red blood cells (pRBC) with a proprietary solution. We report the ability to reduce blood waste during this procedure by using a thermal packaging solution in conjunction with the OCS platform. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all OCS Lung recoveries performed by our recovery team, using packed red blood cells (pRBC) from May 2019 to January 2021. Initially, units were stored using passive refrigeration with the Performance cooler at a temperature range of 1 to 6 °C for 4 hours. Subsequently, thermal control technology with the ProMed cooler was utilized to maintain the same temperature range for 72 hours. Results Twenty-three recoveries were initiated with 63 pRBC. The Performance cooler was used for eight while the ProMed cooler for thirteen. 37.5% of pRBC transported with the Performance cooler was used within the validated time range, while 25.0% were used beyond the validated time range based on clinical judgment. In addition, 37.5% of pRBC transported with the Performance cooler were returned to the institution after canceled recoveries with an estimated loss of $1,800; the ProMed cooler had no wastage. Conclusions This study showed that using an advanced thermal packaging solution facilitates proper storage of pRBC and represents an advancement for extended donor lung preservation. The elimination of blood wastage in this initial study portends ongoing benefits for the limited blood supply and reduced cost.
Background: Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) occurs when at least one pulmonary vein drains into the right atrium or its tributaries rather than the left atrium, most commonly connecting with the superior vena cava (SVC). The Warden procedure involves transecting the SVC proximal to the uppermost connection of the pulmonary vein followed by proximal SVC reattachment to the right atrial appendage. However, descending thoracic aortic homograft replacement for SVC translocation has recently been introduced as a modified technique. Aims: This commentary aims to discuss the recent study by Said and colleagues who reported their experiences with 6 PAPVC cases undergoing a modified Warden procedure using thoracic aortic homograft SVC translocation. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed using multiple electronic databases in order to collate the relevant research evidence. Results: The Warden procedure is associated with a 10% incidence of SVC obstruction with many requiring reintervention. Meanwhile, using the aortic homograft for SVC translocation, Said et al. observed no SVC obstructions. In addition, this modified technique does not require anticoagulation and has demonstrated an improvement in long-term SVC patency. Nevertheless, it can be considered an expensive procedure. Moreover, since the thoracic aortic homograft utilised is biological tissue, only long-term follow-up will determine whether calcification and graft degeneration is an issue. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the modified Warden procedure is a safe and effective method to reconstruct the systemic venous drainage into the right atrium when a direct anastomosis under tension might be prone to re-stenosis.
Background. Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) at ≤20°C for aortic arch surgery has been widely used for decades, with or without cerebral perfusion (CP), antegrade (ACP) or retrograde. In recent years nadir temperature progressively increased to 26-28 °C (moderately hypothermic circulatory arrest, MHCA), adding ACP. Aim of this multicentric study is to evaluate early results of aortic arch surgery and if DHCA with 10-minute of cold reperfusion at the same nadir temperature of the CA before rewarming (delayed rewarming, DR) can provide a neuroprotection and a lower body protection similar to that provided by MHCA+ACP. Methods. Two-hundred-ten patients were included in the study. DHCA+DR was used in 59 patients and MHCA+ACP in 151. Primary endpoints were death, neurologic event (NE), temporary (TNE) or permanent (permanent neurologic deficit, PND), and need of renal replacement therapy (RRT). Results. Operative mortality occurred in 14 patients (6.7%), NEs in 17 (8.1%) and PNDs in 10 (4.8%). Twenty-three patients (10.9%) needed RRT. Death+PND occurred in 21 patients (10%) and composite endpoint in 35 (19.2%). Intergroup weighed logistic regression analysis showed similar prevalence of deaths, NDs and death+PND, but need of RRT (OR 7.39, CI 1.37-79.1) and composite endpoint (OR 8.97, CI 1.95-35.3) were significantly lower in DHCA+DR group compared with MHCA+ACP group. Conclusions. The results of our study demonstrate that DHCA+DR has the same prevalence of operative mortality, NE and association of death+PND than MHCA+ACP. However, the data suggests that DHCA+DR when compared with MHCA+ACP provides better renal protection and reduced prevalence of composite endpoint.
The management of patients with transposition complex in combination with an interrupted aortic arch (IAA) presents a technical challenge to the surgeon to decide which is the best approach to correct both defects. This is a rare disorder and with significant variation in anatomic arrangements deciding on the ideal surgical repair. Over time a single-stage approach to repair has become standard.
Kawasaki Disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis of small and medium arteries, preferably affecting coronary arteries. It is one of the most frequent causes of acquired heart disease in children. Despite being comprehensively studied, its etiopathogenesis is not totally explained. The surgical procedures usually become necessary during the late follow-up and may be coronary artery bypass grafting, cardiac defibrillator implantation with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy, or cardiac transplantation.
Mitral regurgitation in Barlow disease may still be challenging to be repaired . Most often it involves the posterior leaflet . Many techniques and concepts are currently available ; the main goal being to restore a good surface of coaptation . Basic principles such a thorough analysis is still required whatever the approach to assess excess tissue height , width and prolapse . Nowadays it seems that two different ways of treating mitral prolapse coexist : the non resection one and the resection one .Both will be discussed and analysed . Similarly the use of artificial chordae seem to have a preponderant role to support the free edge and correct a prolapse . Native secondary chord transfer are easy and reliable but seem abandoned by many . Anterior leaflet prolapse is also dealt with and fewer options are available to address this leaflet . Then commissural prolapse is mentioned . It is an important area of the valve which should deserve better treatment than commissuroplasty . Finally a special entity will be described ; mitro annular disjonction . The approach is not or no longer an issue as only good long term results are important in an era where per cutaneous therapy is the only non invasive technique .
A 22-year-old immunocompetent female with a history of small pericardial effusion while infant presented with fever and hemodynamic collapse four days after facial trauma. She was found to have cardiac tamponade secondary to infected chylopericardium from bacterial translocation. We report this very unusual case and review of the literature on chylopericardium infections.
Background. The effect of metabolic syndrome (MetS), defined as insulin resistance along with two or more of: obesity, atherogenic dyslipidaemia and elevated blood pressure, on post-operative complications after isolated heart valve intervention remains controversial. We hypothesized that MetS may negatively influence the post-operative course in these patients. Methods. Patients from 10 cardiac units who underwent isolated valve intervention (mitral ± tricuspid repair/replacement (MVS) or aortic valve replacement (SAVR), or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) were included. MetS was defined according to the WHO criteria. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality and overall post-operative length of stay. Relevant post-operative complications were also recorded. Results. From 2010 to 2019, 17283 patients underwent valve intervention. The MVS, SVAR and TAVR accounted for the 39.4%, 48.2% and 12.3% respectively of the whole. MetS compared to no-MetS was associated to higher mortality in the MVS group (6.5% vs. 2%, p<0.001), but not in the SAVR and TAVR group. In both surgical cohorts, MetS was associated with increased complications including red blood cells transfusion, renal failure, mechanical ventilation time, intensive care and overall post-operative length of stay (11 (9) vs. 10 (6), p<0.001 and 10 (6) vs. 10 (5) days, p=0.002, MVS and SAVR)). No differences were found in the TAVR cohort, with similar mortality and complications. Conclusion. MetS was associated to more post-operative complications, with higher mortality in the MVS group. In the TAVR cohort, post-operative complications and mortality rate did not differ between patients with and without MetS, however length of stay was longer in the MetS group.
Background: The management of aortic arch pathologies represents a great challenge and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity. A superior endovascular approach via thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has been introduced to treat arch pathologies with specifically designed endografts. This approach was shown to benefit patients who are deemed ‘high risk’ for undergoing OSR as it is a greatly less invasiveness option and thus, yields lower rates of morbidity and mortality. Aims: This commentary aims to discuss the recent study by Tan et al. which reports original data on the neurological outcomes after endovascular repair of the aortic arch using the RELAY™ Branched device. Methods: We carried out a literature search on multiple electronic databases including PubMed, Ovid, Google Scholar, Scopus and EMBASE in order to collate research evidence on the neurological outcomes of endovascular aortic arch repair with TEVAR. Results: Tan and colleagues showed through their original clinical data that the RELAY™ Branched device has a high rate of technical success and favourable neurological outcomes. There were no reported neurological deficits in patients who received the triple-branched RELAY™ Branched device. Conclusion: The RELAY™ Branched endograft is well-established for candidates for aortic arch endovascular repair with favourable neurological outcomes. Multiple considerations can help control the incidence of stroke following endovascular repair. These include optimization of the supra-aortic vessels’ revascularization, weighting the embolic risk in patients with atheromatous disease, and careful preoperative assessment to select the best candidates for arch endovascular repair
Despite advances in technologies and clinical experience, conduction disorders, after TAVR or SAVR, represent the weak point of these procedures, requiring permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) till 37.7% of patients in TAVR recipients. The role of PPI in TAVR and SAVR remains controversial in mid- and long-term outcomes. Indeed, many studies have been published with contradictory results, leaving doubts rather than certainties.
Background: Ventricular septal defect (VSD) is one of the most common congenital cardiac defects, However, in some cases VSD sites are difficult to expose due to obstruction from chordal attachments and leaflets of the tricuspid valve (TV)(#ref-0006). To systematically review the efficacy and safety of tricuspid valve detachment,( TVD) versus conventional surgical repair ( non-TVD) in the treatment of ventricular septal defect ( VSD) ．This article is aimed to compare the many outcomes from existing studies and provide evidence regarding the necessity of performing TVD. Methods:We searched the following databases: PubMed via NCBI, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (no date restriction),Medline via Ovid (from 1966 to May 2020); Embase via Ovid (no date restriction) and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for studies comparing the efficacy of tricuspid valve detachment (TVD) and other surgical techniques in VSD repair. Cardiopulmonary bypass time, Cross-clamp time; postoperative complications including residual defect ,Postoperative atrioventricular block ,Implantation of pacemakers, tricuspid regurgitation ;Length of stay, Length of ICU stay were analyzed． Results: Only 9 studies were included after selection (Table 1), including 7 retrospective cohort studies, 1 respective cohort study and 1 prospective observational stud，a patient pool of 1404 patients with 374 underwent TVD and 1030 underwent non-TVD procedures,met the inclusion criteria．Meta analysis has drawn to the following conclusions. Firstly, TVD prolongs CPB time (MD=7.75, 95% CI=2.60-12.89, p=0.003) and cross-clamp time(MD=7.77, 95% CI=4.76-10.78, p<0.001) compared with non-TVD techniques in VSD repair surgeries. Secondly, no significant difference exists in LOS, length of ICU stay, postoperative atrioventricular block, implantation of pacemakers, incidence of ≥mild TR postoperatively and at discharge, as well as incidence of ≥small residual VSD after surgery and during follow-up( all P ＞ 0. 05). Thirdly, application of TVD increases the risk of TR during follow-up(OR=2.42, 95% CI=1.55-3.76, p<0.001). Conclusion: VSD closure using TVD technique results in longer CPB and cross-clamp time, and increases risk of TR during follow-up. TVD provides equally viable and safe alternative in treating VSD．