Vietnam contains a complex series of faults coupled with a diffuse igneous province that has been active since the mid-Miocene. However, existing fault maps demonstrate little consensus over the location of Neogene basalt flows and relative ages of mapped faults, which complicates interpretations of tectonic model for the evolution of Indochina. This paper identifies discrete tectonic blocks within Vietnam and aims to define the Neogene-Recent tectonic setting and kinematics of south-central Vietnam by analyzing the orientation, kinematics, and relative ages of faults across each block. Fault ages and relative timing are constrained using cross-cutting relationships with dated basalt flows and between slickenside sets. Remote sensing results show distinct fault trends within individual blocks that are locally related to the orientations of the basement-involved block-bounding faults. Faults observed in the field indicate an early phase of dip-slip motion and a later phase of strike-slip motion, recording the rotation of blocks within a stress field. Faulting after the change in motion of the Red River Fault Zone is inferred, as faults cross-cut basalt flows as young as ~0.6 Ma. Strike-slip motion on block-bounding faults is consistent with rotation and continuous extrusion of each block within south-central Vietnam. The rotation of the blocks is attributed to the “continuum rubble” behavior of small crustal blocks influenced by extrusion-driven asthenospheric flow after the collision between India and Eurasia. We deduce a robust lithospheric-asthenospheric coupling in the extrusion model, which holds implications for other regions experiencing extrusion even in the absence of a free surface.

Lynne J Elkins

and 4 more

The driving processes responsible for producing the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, the Large Igneous Province associated with end-Triassic rifting of Pangea, remain largely debated. Because their compositions encompass most of the Central Atlantic basalt spectrum, tholeiites from southern Eastern North America are considered pivotal for identifying magma origins. New 176Hf/177Hf measurements for 201 Ma Eastern North American tholeiites dominantly record a local petrogenetic history. Their εHf ratios, corrected to an emplacement age of 201 Ma (-7.85 to +5.86), form a positive but shallowly sloped array slightly deviating from the terrestrial array on a εHf vs. εNd diagram. Comparison of 176Hf/177Hf to other isotope ratios and trace elements helps to rule out several petrogenetic scenarios, particularly mixing of melts from global depleted or enriched mantle components. In contrast, partial melting of subduction-metasomatized mantle can explain the parental magma composition for southern Eastern North America. Such metasomatism likely occurred during Paleozoic subduction around Pangea and may have been dominated by sediment-derived fluid reactions. The observed 176Hf/177Hf vs. 143Nd/144Nd array may reflect subsequent assimilation of lower continental crust, perhaps together with limited direct melting of recycled continental crust in the asthenosphere. The proposed recycling scenario does not specifically support or preclude a mantle plume origin for the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province, but instead points toward the presence of a distinct local mantle source and crustal assimilation processes during magma transport. Detailed understanding of these local effects is needed in order to more accurately understand the origins of Large Igneous Provinces.

Lynne J Elkins

and 1 more

Meaningful analysis of uranium-series isotopic disequilibria in basaltic lavas relies on the use of complex forward numerical models like dynamic melting (McKenzie, 1985) and equilibrium porous flow (Spiegelman and Elliott, 1993). Historically, such models have either been solved analytically for simplified scenarios, such as constant melting rate or constant solid/melt trace element partitioning throughout the melting process, or have relied on incremental or numerical calculators with limited power to solve problems and/or restricted availability. The most public numerical solution to reactive porous flow, UserCalc (Spiegelman, 2000) was maintained on a private institutional server for nearly two decades, but that approach has been unsustainable in light of modern security concerns. Here we present a more long-lasting solution to the problems of availability, model sophistication and flexibility, and long-term access in the form of a cloud-hosted, publicly available Jupyter notebook. Similar to UserCalc, the new notebook calculates U-series disequilibria during time-dependent, equilibrium partial melting in a one-dimensional porous flow regime where mass is conserved. In addition, we also provide a new disequilibrium transport model which has the same melt transport model as UserCalc, but approximates rate-limited diffusive exchange of nuclides between solid and melt using linear kinetics. The degree of disequilibrium during transport is controlled by a Damköhler number, allowing the full spectrum of equilibration models from complete fractional melting (Da = 0) to equilibrium transport (Da = ∞).