This paper provides a comprehensive overview of recent advancements in autonomous electric vehicles (AEV) within the specified region. It elaborates on the progress and comparative analysis of diverse subsystems, including energy storage, cell balancing for battery systems, vehicle charger layouts, electric vehicle motor mechanisms, and braking systems. Furthermore, this paper showcases several prototype autonomous electric vehicles as conclusive study findings.
Freeboardelevation of a structure above the base flood elevation (BFE)is a critical component in mitigating or avoiding flood losses. However, the unrevealed benefits and savings of freeboard installation have prevented communities from adopting this approach. To improve decision-making for flood-vulnerable communities and enhance flood risk mitigation strategies, this study presents the methodology underlying a new webtool, FloodSafeHome, that estimates comprehensively the economic benefits and savings of freeboard installation for new construction of residential buildings. Specifically, the proposed evaluation framework has been designed to calculate monthly savings for individual buildings by assessing freeboard cost, insurance savings per year, and expected annual flood loss. This new evaluation method is built into a web-based, decision-making tool for use by the public and community leaders in three southeastern Louisiana parishes, to identify expected future benefits of building residences with freeboard and enhance their decision-making processes with interactive risk/benefit analysis features. For example, results indicate the levels of freeboard that optimize the costbenefit ratio for flood-insured homes in the study area. This approach is expected to improve long-term flood resilience and provide cost-efficient flood mitigation strategies particularly in disaster vulnerable regions.
In the text “Mass and Massiton”, I propose a hypothesis that there is one kind of the elementary particle that can produce gravitational force, and it is the minimum component that make up of mass, and I give it a name called “Massiton”. Both electrons and protons are composite particles, wherein the positive and negative charges are located at the center and the outer spherical shells wrapping the central electric charges are made up of Massitons. And the most convincing evidence for the existence of Massitons is the neutrinos that have mass, and have no charges.
To integrate temporal and spatial dimensions of seasonal cycles, we combine two conceptual frameworks: ecological calendars and the “3Hs” model of the biocultural ethic. The latter values the vital links between human and other-than-human co-inhabitants, their life habits (e.g., cultural practices of human communities or life cycles of other-than-human species) and the structure, patterns and processes of their shared habitats. This integration enhances an understanding of core links between cultural practices and the life cycles of biocultural keystone species. As a synthesis, we use the term biocultural calendars to emphasize the co-constitutive nature of calendars that result from continuous interactions between dynamic biophysical and cultural processes. We apply biocultural calendars to examine cultural practices and socio-environmental changes in southwestern South America, specifically in Chile, spanning from (1) Cape Horn at the southern of the Americas in sub-Antarctic habitats inhabited by the Yagan indigenous community, (2) artisanal fisher communities in Chiloe; archipelagoes, (3) coastal regions of central-southern Chile inhabited by Lafkenche and Williche indigenous communities, to (4) high Andean habitats in northern Chile co-inhabited by Aymara communities along with domesticated camelids and a rich biodiversity. To illustrate biocultural calendars, we designed analemma diagrams that show the position of the Sun in the sky as seen from a fixed time and location, and linked to continuous renewal of astronomical, biological and cultural, seasonal cycles that sustain life. These biocultural calendars enhance the integration of indigenous and scientific knowledge to confront complex challenges of climate change faced by local communities and global society.
There is no doubt anymore that Earth Observation (EO) is contributing toward meeting the Sustainable Development Goals and addressing environmental challenges. Digital Earth Africa’s objective is to make freely available an EO data cube for all of Africa that democratizes the capacity to process and analyse satellite data. It allows to track changes across Africa in unprecedented detail and will provide data on a vast number of issues, including soil and coastal erosion, agriculture, forest and desert development, water quality, and changes to human settlements. To realise full benefits of an advanced Platform like Digital Earth Africa, Digital Earth Africa has co-designed and co-developed with five institutions namely the Regional Centre For Mapping Of Resources For Development (RCMRD, Kenya), Centre de Suivi Écologique (Senegal), l’observatoire du Sahara et du Sahel (Tunisia), AFRIGIST (Nigeria) and AGRHYMET (Niger). This was meant to ensure it meets end-users needs, this program has been developed by the future deliverers of the program. From the trainers’ perspective, the program is built to consider the recent changes in teaching approaches and methodologies including pedagogy that emerged from a Covid-19, and post Covid-19, pandemic world. On the end-user side, the curriculum covered a wide spectrum of topics, from understanding satellite images, python scripting in the JupyterLab environment to identifying solutions to SDGs challenges through use cases, available in English and French. Digital Earth Africa’s Gender Equity, Diversity and Social Inclusion principles strategy (GEDSI) is imprinted as a watermark across the whole program. It prioritises gender equality, diversity, and social inclusion so that women, people with disabilities and marginalised individuals and communities have the same opportunities to benefit from EO data. In addition, Digital Earth Africa started live virtual sessions, to stay connected with end users, who have developed impactive stories in their communities. Digital Earth Africa seeks to support the capacity development of individuals, academic and governmental institutions, and private sector organisations to empower present and next generation of decision makers to drive toward a sustainable future, leaving on one and place behind.
Poem to imagine the “essence” of water as it circulates through the Earth universe, synergistically supporting all environments and living ecosystems, forming, and shaping land and life. The poem links key elements of the interactive global water cycle and international programs to sustainably manage natural, and socioeconomic resources, given the challenge of climate change. It is in awareness of: –Essential Water Variables (EWVs) of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) Global Water Sustainability (GEOGLOWS) initiative; Earth Observations (EO) for the Water-Energy-Food Nexus (EO4WEF) community activity; UN Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs), UNFCCC–Climate Change. The poem hopes to bring water to the forefront of consciousness. Readers are invited to comment on the intangible “feelings” evoked by the poem.
Environmental justice and equity should include access to clean water for all. It is expensive to drill borehole wells, typically over $10,000 US dollars, and so organizations working to provide wells in developing countries have typically installed community wells at some common gathering place. This requires that many users must walk long distances to access these water sources. This limits the quantity of water available to a family, and also creates vulnerabilities for the family member, usually a woman or child, sent for the water since the journey is often made early in the morning or at night in the dark. I have been drilling wells with a Kenyan team since 2010 using a simple, manual percussion hydraulic method developed by WaterForAllinternational.org whereby we can install a well generally for less than $200 US dollars excluding labor. Through their own participation in the drilling process, this low-cost enables families to pay for and drill their own well. In this way, they gain access to a much larger supply of water at or close to home, and eliminate the need and vulnerability associated with walking long distances to procure water for their family. Both the drilling apparatus and the cased well, including the pump, is constructed from materials available off-the-shelf at local hardware stores. Over the years I have made several modifications to the pump design, other infrastructure, and manufacturing process to improve the longevity, simplicity, and interchangeability of the final product. The drilling method is primarily applicable to aquifers lying above bedrock and it is feasible to drill wells to a depth of several hundred feet. The greatest challenge in the endeavor is earning the trust and cultivating the participation of the local community. This presentation will address the drilling process, the well infrastructure, and some socio-cultural aspects of the project.
Stories about the foundation of US geology as a discipline are prominent in the culture of field geology today. This article traces the threads of such “origin stories” through field geology practices and undergraduate training. The repetition of these origin stories obfuscates the colonialist and race-fueled motives that underpin the actions of the US geologist characters featured in these stories. Increasingly, the field is recognized as a site of sexual and racial harassment and abuse. By making visible the racialized subplots in the history of US geology, which include entrenchment in racial science and land dispossession, I posit that the curated origin stories repeated today perpetuate processes of exclusion and subjugation in field geology.
Through the PolarTREC program that pairs US educators with field researchers in polar regions, our team has been collaborating on K-12 and undergraduate curriculum development and outreach activities on Arctic amplification of climate change. We have created new lesson plans and activities focused on how organic carbon from thawing permafrost in the Arctic is turned into carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas that amplifies climate change. This presentation will cover our collaboration to bring this knowledge and experience to high school science students through classroom activities and projects. The focus will be laboratory activities designed for the chemistry classroom: use of spectrophotometry to assess degree of photobleaching in organic samples and evaluation of data from high resolution mass spectrometry to characterize complex organic mixtures. We will also review lessons learned from our efforts to promote enthusiasm for polar science within the general public and discuss the benefits of the PolarTREC program to researchers, educators, students, and the public.
A new model validation and performance assessment tool is introduced, the sliding threshold of observation for numeric evaluation (STONE) curve. It is based on the relative operating characteristic (ROC) curve technique, but instead of sorting all observations in a categorical classification, the STONE tool uses the continuous nature of the observations. Rather than defining events in the observations and then sliding the threshold only in the classifier/model data set, the threshold is changed simultaneously for both the observational and model values, with the same threshold value for both data and model. This is only possible if the observations are continuous and the model output is in the same units and scale as the observations; the model is trying to exactly reproduce the data. The STONE curve has several similarities with the ROC curve – plotting probability of detection against probability of false detection, ranging from the (1,1) corner for low thresholds to the (0,0) corner for high thresholds, and values above the zero-intercept unity-slope line indicating better than random predictive ability. The main difference is that the STONE curve can be nonmonotonic, doubling back in both the x and y directions. These ripples reveal asymmetries in the data-model value pairs. This new technique is applied to modeling output of a common geomagnetic activity index as well as energetic electron fluxes in the Earth’s inner magnetosphere. It is not limited to space physics applications but can be used for any scientific or engineering field where numerical models are used to reproduce observations.
We present a Python package geared towards the intuitive analysis and visualization of paleoclimate timeseries, Pyleoclim. The code is open-source, object-oriented, and built upon the standard scientific Python stack, allowing users to take advantage of a large collection of existing and emerging techniques. We describe the code’s philosophy, structure and base functionalities, and apply it to three paleoclimate problems: (1) orbital-scale climate variability in a deep-sea core, illustrating spectral, wavelet and coherency analysis in the presence of age uncertainties; (2) correlating a high-resolution speleothem to a climate field, illustrating correlation analysis in the presence of various statistical pitfalls (including age uncertainties); (3) model-data confrontations in the frequency domain, illustrating the characterization of scaling behavior. We show how the package may be used for transparent and reproducible analysis of paleoclimate and paleoceanographic datasets, supporting FAIR software and an open science ethos. The package is supported by an extensive documentation and a growing library of tutorials shared publicly as videos and cloud-executable Jupyter notebooks, to encourage adoption by new users.
Reproducibility and replicability in analyzing data is one of the main requirements for the advancement of scientific fields that rely heavily on computational data analysis, such as atmospheric science. However, there are very few research activities that field in Indonesia that emphasize the principle of transparency of codes and data in the dissemination of the results. This issue is a major challenge for the Indonesian scientific community to verify the output of research activities from their peers. One common obstacle to the reproducibility of data-driven research is the portability issue of the computing environment used to reproduce the results. Therefore, in this article, we would like to offer a solution through Debian-based dockerized Jupyter Notebook that have been installed with several Python libraries that are often used in atmospheric science research. Through this containerized computing environment, we expect to overcome the portability and dependency constraints that often faced by atmospheric scientists and also to encourage the growth of research ecosystem in Indonesia through an open and replicable environment.
It’s very difficult to understand the mechanism producing solar magnetic fields, as it mingled with various activities, it also hindered by gaseous model of the sun; an alternative view is suggested based on characteristics of electrons exhibited in electric current; in 1820 Ørsted discovered both the relation between electricity and magnesium and the Circular Magnetic Field (CMF) produced by electric current, later discovered its produced by electrons in motion; thus the bulky rotation of charged particles (electrons, protons and ions) in tornado mode, produced intense CMF, designated as Plasma Pillar Intense Magnetic Field (PPIMF) with magnitude exceeds millions Tesla; and since EUV images in F-A, illustrates subsurface intense Magnetic Lines of Force (MLF), it also shows activities of Solar Flare (SF), both are suggested as due to PPIMF, which accounted for most solar activities, the Active Region (AR) as in F-B suggested to represent the PPIMF, where AR near surface are in circle, while AR at deep depth in squares; at deep depths the influence of PPIMF on photosphere during quiet sun resulted in pairs of negative and positive magnetic fields represented by magnetogram in F-C; during active sun, PPIMF raise nearer photosphere, it’s negative and positive fields interacted with the photosphere’s state, resulted in pairs of sunspots in F-D, look like iron filings, but formed by plasma, their shapes determined by proximity to PPIMF; as charged particles gyrate around the pillar, any increase in field’s intensity reduced radius of gyration, hence the adjacent distances between ions, thus at critical distance Solar Flare (SF) is triggered producing great energy, radiations and plasma including heavy ions; this knowledge will unlock dynamics of the sun, it’s internal structures and related mechanisms, it will help attained the alternative renewable energy, avert negative consequences of climate change, improve prediction of solar activity and space weather among others.
The USA National Phenology Network was established in 2007 to formalize standardized phenology monitoring across the country. The aims of the Network are to collect, store, and share phenology data and information to support scientific discovery, decision-making, an appreciation for phenology, and equitable engagement within the Network. To support these aims, the Network launched Nature’s Notebook, a rigorous platform for monitoring plant and animal phenology, in 2009. Since the launch of Nature’s Notebook, participants across the country have contributed over 28M phenology records. Participants range from backyard observers with an interest in nature to researchers and natural resource managers asking specific questions. We survey the breadth of studies and applied decisions that have utilized Nature’s Notebook and the consequent data. The dimensionality of the dataset maintained by the Network is a function of Nature’s Notebook users; this insight is key to shaping the Network’s future data collection activities.
Generating data has become cheaper and easier, but alone is not sufficient to answer biological questions – data must be analyzed and interpreted. However, many algorithms can create or exacerbate biases (e.g., facial-recognition, ancestry, and disease risk). This necessitates incorporating diverse perspectives to confront both the moral and technical “big data challenges”. To move to a future where this is possible, it is necessary for researchers to develop skills in data management, processing, and analytics. Specifically, the field of plant phenotyping has moved from time consuming hand measurements to the use and development of high-throughput phenotyping. These systems require data-enabled/fluent users, yet academic programs in biology do not provide sufficient data science training. Here we present the Bioinformatics in Plant Science (BIPS) program at the University of Missouri (MU) as a model for training the next generation of data-enabled/fluent scientists. BIPS aims to mentor undergraduate students to build foundational skills in plant biology, research, and computational science. Our program pairs biology and computer science students to address biological questions through computational methods, with many focusing on plant phenotyping methods. The students learn to tackle problems using multidisciplinary approaches, alongside learning how to work in teams while building science communication skills (e.g., professional conferences, research forums, presenting to lawmakers). Through peer learning, BIPS students can understand and incorporate diverse perspectives from both the biological and computational side to address one of NSF’s 10 big ideas: harnessing the data revolution.