Ent
Introduction:The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was initially identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. Following its spread across the globe within a matter of months, the World Health Organization classified COVID-19 as a pandemic.1 Its rapid transmission and high hospitalization rate have forced health professionals to drastically alter their practices in order to slow its proliferation. The rapid influx of COVID-19 related admissions in hospitals around the United States has led to a widespread shortage of crucial healthcare resources, particularly personal protective equipment (PPE), ventilators, and free ICU beds. Surgical procedures further deplete such resources in a time of acutely high need. Additionally, evidence has shown that healthcare workers may be particularly susceptible to infection from the causative pathogen, SARS-CoV-2, with roughly 20% of exposed professionals becoming infected in Italy.2Following these developments, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that all inpatient facilities postpone or cancel any elective surgeries.3 In the ensuing weeks, the American College of Surgeons and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery followed suit with this recommendation.4,5Furthermore, many hospitals and practices have opted to cancel in-person outpatient clinic visits, where patients oftentimes receive critical longitudinal care. Like other surgeons, otolaryngologists, and specifically head and neck surgical oncologists, have been deeply affected by these drastic measures. It is evident, however, that physicians must find ways to continue to monitor such patients’ conditions or treat them in some aspect. The popularity and prevalence of telemedicine has grown rapidly during this pandemic as many physicians have sought ways to maintain a continuum of care with their patients.6 Such initiatives have previously been shown to decrease costs, decrease visit time, and lead to high patient satisfaction in surgical fields.7,8Within otolaryngology specifically, certain telehealth assessments have been shown to allow for quicker examinations without compromising the communication of crucial information from the patient to the physician, or vice versa.9 However, the rapid implementation of telehealth has been a relatively new phenomenon during the COVID-19 pandemic, meaning that physicians oftentimes have to learn how to optimize their virtual visits to maximize their efficiency and effectiveness. In otolaryngology, telemedicine has not been routinely used to evaluate patients, despite estimates that 62% of otolaryngology patients would be amenable to virtual appointments.10Thus, it may be difficult for physicians to anticipate barriers to their care during a telehealth visit. Based on the authors’ experience, there exists a steep learning curve following the onset of such visits due to a variety of factors on both the patient’s and physician’s side.To our knowledge, there are no set guidelines or best practices for patients or head and neck cancer physicians conducting virtual visits. Drawing upon our experience, we aim to compile a set of guidelines for physicians and patients alike to navigate telehealth visits during the era of COVID-19. We also created a handout that can be distributed to patients prior to the visit, such that patients can familiarize themselves with general expectations and key examination steps that they may be asked to perform during the visit.
EditorialShortly after I finished delivering a keynote lecture on minor salivary gland cancers on February 23, 2020 at the Candiolo Cancer Institute in Turin, Italy, the conference chairs Drs. Giovanni Succo and Piero Nicolai announced that the conference was urgently adjourned and the rest of the program canceled. This unexpected announcement was in compliance with the Italian government’s orders to immediately end all public gatherings. Two days earlier as I set out to travel to Italy, where no cases of coronavirus infection had yet been reported, news reports were focused mostly on South Korea and Iran as hotspots of COVID-19. Out of an abundance of caution, I double-checked again before leaving for the airport and confirmed that Italy had no reported cases. Upon my arrival in Turin I was greeted by the usual warm welcome and well-known hospitality of our Italian colleagues. At the welcome reception they discussed the earlier morning report of the first five confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Lombardy region and its capital Milan. The next day, as the unplanned adjournment was announced on the first day of the 3-day conference, there were more than 120 reported cases ushering what would be the first significant outbreak in Europe. The conference chair read the Italian government emergency prohibition of public gatherings, canceling the Milan fashion week, the Venice carnival, and closing all schools and universities. But when he announced that the football (aka Soccer) game was canceled I knew that the situation was grave. As most of us know it almost takes an act of God to cancel a football game in Italy! Without delay I scrambled to get a flight back home only 24 hours after I arrived in Turin. On my way to the airport I saw on my news app that France had stopped a train of passengers from Italy and diverted it back. I was concerned about my connection in Frankfurt and ultimately getting back to USA. As I passed every step of screening and temperature checks I finally landed in Houston with a huge sigh of relief. Following instructions that were urgently sent that day, I immediately contacted our employee health at MD Anderson where I was carefully screened and cleared to go back to work.
1

David M. Tierney MD

and 6 more

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly contagious zoonosis produced by SARS-CoV-2 that is spread human-to-human by respiratory secretions. It was declared by the WHO as a public health emergency. The most susceptible populations, needing mechanical ventilation, are the elderly and people with associated comorbidities.There is an important risk of contagion for anesthetists, dentists, head and neck surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons, ophthalmologists and otolaryngologists.  Health workers represent between 3.8% to 20% of the infected population; some 15% will develop severe complaints and among them, many will lose their lives. A large number of patients do not have overt signs and symptoms (fever/respiratory), yet pose a real risk to surgeons (who should know this fact and must therefore apply respiratory protective strategies for all patients they encounter).All interventions that have the potential to aerosolize aerodigestive secretions should be avoided or used only when mandatory. Health workers who are: pregnant, over 55-65 years of age, with a history of chronic diseases (uncontrolled hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and all clinical scenarios where immunosuppression is feasible, including that induced to treat chronic inflammatory conditions and organ transplants) should avoid the clinical attention of a potentially infected patient. Healthcare facilities should prioritize urgent and emergency visits and procedures until the present condition stabilizes; truly elective care should cease and discussed on a case-by-case basis for cancer patients.For those who are working with COVID-19 infected patients’ isolation is compulsory in the following settings: a) unprotected close contact with COVID-19 pneumonia patients: b) onset of fever, cough, shortness of breath and other symptoms (gastrointestinal complaints, anosmia and dysgeusia have been reported in a minority of cases).For any care or intervention in the upper aerodigestive tract region, irrespective of the setting and a confirmed diagnosis (e.g.; rhinoscopy or flexible laryngoscopy in the outpatient setting and tracheostomy or rigid endoscopy under anesthesia) it is strongly recommended that all healthcare personnel wear personal protective equipment (PPE) such as N95, gown, cap, eye protection and gloves.The procedures described are essential in trying to maintain safety of healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, otolaryngologists, head and neck, and maxillofacial surgeons are per se exposed to the greatest risk of infection while caring for COVID-19 positive subjects, and their protection should be considered a priority in the present circumstances.