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Modulation of hematopoiesis by protozoal and helminth parasites
  • Kyle Cunningham,
  • Kingston Mills
Kyle Cunningham
University of Glasgow
Author Profile
Kingston Mills
Academic Director Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute TCD Research Theme Leader Immunology, Inflammation and Infection School of Biochemistry and Immunology Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute Trinity College Dublin, Ireland

Corresponding Author:[email protected]

Author Profile


During inflammation hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the bone marrow (BM) and periphery rapidly expand and preferentially differentiate into myeloid cells that mediate innate immune responses. HSCs can be directed into quiescence or differentiation by sensing alterations to the hematopoietic niche, including cytokines, chemokines, and pathogen-derived products. Most studies attempting to identify the mechanisms of hematopoiesis have focused on bacterial and viral infections. From intracellular protozoan infections to large multicellular worms, parasites are a global health burden and represent major immunological challenges that remain poorly defined in the context of hematopoiesis. Immune responses to parasites vary drastically, and parasites have developed sophisticated immunomodulatory mechanisms that allow development of chronic infections. Recent advances in imaging, genomic sequencing and mouse models have shed new light on how parasites induce unique forms of emergency hematopoiesis. In addition, parasites can modify the hematopoiesis in the BM and periphery to improve their survival in the host. Parasites can also induce long-lasting modifications to HSCs, altering future immune responses to infection, inflammation or transplantation, a term sometimes referred to as central trained immunity. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of parasite-induced hematopoiesis and how parasites target this process to promote chronic infections.
13 Dec 2022Submitted to Parasite Immunology
14 Dec 2022Submission Checks Completed
14 Dec 2022Assigned to Editor
14 Dec 2022Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
04 Jan 2023Reviewer(s) Assigned
31 Jan 2023Editorial Decision: Revise Minor
07 Feb 20231st Revision Received
10 Feb 2023Review(s) Completed, Editorial Evaluation Pending
10 Feb 2023Submission Checks Completed
10 Feb 2023Assigned to Editor
13 Feb 2023Editorial Decision: Accept