A 57-year-old man was diagnosed with acute aortic dissection (AAD), but had marked infiltration shadows in his right lung. Intraoperative findings showed that large subadventitial hematomas had spread from the ascending aorta to the right pulmonary artery, which may have caused the infiltration of the lung. Subadventitial hematoma must be considered in rare cases of AAD with pulmonary infiltration.
Orleans Parish in Louisiana is in the midst of an exponentially increasing number of patient admissions with COVID-19 and respiratory symptoms. Patients have been described having CT findings most consistent with an Early stage (< 7 days from symptoms onset) or an Advanced stage (8-14 days from symptoms onset).We describe and illustrate those Early and Advanced stage CT findings from patients with documented COVID-19 who have been admitted to University Medical Center in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Lung ultrasound (LU) has rapidly become a tool for assessment of patients stricken by the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Over the past two and a half months (January, February and first half of March 2020) we have used this modality for identification of lung involvement along with pulmonary severity in patients with suspected or documented COVID-19 infection. Use of LU has helped us in clinical decision making and reduced the use of both chest x-rays and computed tomography (CT).
The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a highly contagious zoonosis produced by SARS-CoV-2 that is spread human-to-human by respiratory secretions. It was declared by the WHO as a public health emergency. The most susceptible populations, needing mechanical ventilation, are the elderly and people with associated comorbidities.There is an important risk of contagion for anesthetists, dentists, head and neck surgeons, maxillofacial surgeons, ophthalmologists and otolaryngologists. Health workers represent between 3.8% to 20% of the infected population; some 15% will develop severe complaints and among them, many will lose their lives. A large number of patients do not have overt signs and symptoms (fever/respiratory), yet pose a real risk to surgeons (who should know this fact and must therefore apply respiratory protective strategies for all patients they encounter).All interventions that have the potential to aerosolize aerodigestive secretions should be avoided or used only when mandatory. Health workers who are: pregnant, over 55-65 years of age, with a history of chronic diseases (uncontrolled hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and all clinical scenarios where immunosuppression is feasible, including that induced to treat chronic inflammatory conditions and organ transplants) should avoid the clinical attention of a potentially infected patient. Healthcare facilities should prioritize urgent and emergency visits and procedures until the present condition stabilizes; truly elective care should cease and discussed on a case-by-case basis for cancer patients.For those who are working with COVID-19 infected patients’ isolation is compulsory in the following settings: a) unprotected close contact with COVID-19 pneumonia patients: b) onset of fever, cough, shortness of breath and other symptoms (gastrointestinal complaints, anosmia and dysgeusia have been reported in a minority of cases).For any care or intervention in the upper aerodigestive tract region, irrespective of the setting and a confirmed diagnosis (e.g.; rhinoscopy or flexible laryngoscopy in the outpatient setting and tracheostomy or rigid endoscopy under anesthesia) it is strongly recommended that all healthcare personnel wear personal protective equipment (PPE) such as N95, gown, cap, eye protection and gloves.The procedures described are essential in trying to maintain safety of healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, otolaryngologists, head and neck, and maxillofacial surgeons are per se exposed to the greatest risk of infection while caring for COVID-19 positive subjects, and their protection should be considered a priority in the present circumstances.
Respiratory complications have been well remarked in the novel coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19), yet an emerging body of research indicates that cardiac involvement may be implicated in poor outcomes for these patients. This review seeks to gather and distill the existing body of literature that describes the cardiac implications of COVID-19. Notably, COVID-19 patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease are counted in greater frequency in intensive care unit settings, and ultimately suffer greater rates of mortality. Other studies have noted cardiac presentations for COVID-19, rather than respiratory, such as acute pericarditis and left ventricular dysfunction. In some patients there has been evidence of acute myocardial injury, with correspondingly increased serum troponin I levels. With regard to surgical interventions, there is a dearth of data describing myocardial protection during cardiac surgery for COVID-19 patients. Although some insights have been garnered in the study of cardiovascular diseases for these patients, these insights remain fragmented and have yet to cement clear guidelines for actionable clinical practice. Further studies are imperative for a more cohesive understanding of the cardiac pathophysiology in COVID-19 patients to promote more informed treatment and, ultimately, better clinical outcomes.
Published in Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. DOI forthcoming.Author list and affiliationNorman C. Wang, MD, MS; Sandeep K. Jain, MD; N.A. Mark Estes III, MD; William W. Barrington, MD; Raveen Bazaz, MD; Aditya Bhonsale, MD, MHS; Krishna Kancharla, MBBS; Alaa A. Shalaby, MD, MSc; Andrew H. Voigt, MD; Samir Saba, MD Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaAuthor disclosures: Dr. Wang serves as a consultant for Abbott. Dr. Jain serves as a consultant for Medtronic, receives research support from Medtronic, and is a research investigator for Abbott, Boston Scientific, and Medtronic. Dr. Estes serves as a consultant for Abbott, Boston Scientific, and Medtronic. Dr. Saba receives research support from Abbott and Boston Scientific. The remaining authors have nothing to disclose. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center receives institutional cardiac electrophysiology fellowship support from Abbott, Boston Scientific, and Medtronic.Funding: This manuscript did not receive any specific grant(s) from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.Proposed Tweet: Priority plan for invasive cardiac EP procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. #EPeeps #COVID19
In December 2019, the world started to face a new pandemic situation, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Although COVID-19 clinical manifestations are mainly respiratory, major cardiac complications are being reported. Cardiac manifestations etiology seems to be multifactorial, comprising direct viral myocardial damage, hypoxia, hypotension, enhanced inflammatory status, ACE2-receptors downregulation, drug toxicity, endogenous catecholamine adrenergic status, among others. Studies evaluating COVID-19 patients presenting cardiac injury markers show that it is associated with poorer outcomes, and arrhythmic events are not uncommon. Besides, drugs currently used to treat the COVID-19 are known to prolong the QT interval and can have a proarrhythmic propensity. This review focus on COVID-19 cardiac and arrhythmic manifestations and, in parallel, makes an appraisal of other virus epidemics as SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and H1N1 influenza.
The COVID-19 pandemic has placed an extraordinary demand on the United States healthcare system. Many institutions have cancelled elective and non-urgent procedures to conserve resources and limit exposure. While operational definitions of elective and urgent categories exist, there is a degree of surgeon judgment in designation. In the present commentary, we provide a framework for prioritizing head and neck surgery during the pandemic. Unique considerations for the head and neck patient are examined including risk to the oncology patient, outcomes following delay in head and neck cancer therapy, and risk of transmission during otolaryngologic surgery. Our case prioritization criteria consist of four categories: urgent – proceed with surgery, less urgent – consider postpone > 30 days, less urgent – consider postpone 30–90 days, and case-by-case basis. Finally, we discuss our preoperative clinical pathway for transmission mitigation including defining low-risk and high-risk surgery for transmission and role of preoperative COVID-19 testing.
Background and Methods: There is an added level of complexity in the management of head and neck cancer patients with underlying immunosuppressive disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic. Head and neck oncologists are tasked with balancing the dual risks of cancer progression in the setting of impaired tumor immunity and increased susceptibility to life-threatening complications from exposure to viral infection for patients and providers. Through two cases of immunocompromised patients with newly diagnosed head and neck malignancies, we aim to provide guidance to clinicians struggling with how to best counsel and manage this unique subset of patients under these difficult circumstances. Results: After careful consideration of the options, we took different approaches in the care of these two patients. Conclusions: Ultimately, there is no uniform set of rules to apply to this heterogeneous group of immune-compromised patients. We provide some general principles to help guide patient management during the current pandemic.
BackgroundIn the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, cancer care has had to adapt rapidly given the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American College of Surgeons (ACS) issuing recommendations to postpone non-urgent surgeries. MethodsAn institutional multidisciplinary group of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, Surgical Endocrinology, and Medical Endocrinology devised Surgical Triaging Guidelines for Endocrine Surgery during COVID-19, aligned with phases of care published by the ACS.ResultsPhases of care with examples of corresponding endocrine cases are outlined. Most cases can be safely postponed with active surveillance, including most differentiated and medullary thyroid cancers. During the most acute phase, all endocrine surgeries are deferred except thyroid tumors requiring acute airway management.ConclusionsThese guidelines provide context for endocrine surgery within the spectrum of surgical oncology, with the goal of optimal individualized multidisciplinary patient care, and the expectation of significant resource diversion to care for COVID-19 patients.
Purpose : Pulmonary ultrasound can rapidly identify the etiology of acute respiratory failure (ARF) and assess treatment response. The often-subjective classification of abnormalities makes it difficult to document change over time and communicate findings across providers. The study goal was to develop a simple, scoring system that would allow for standardized documentation, have high inter-provider agreement, and correlate with clinical metrics.Methods : rospective of adults intubated for ARF performed at intubation, 48-hours, and extubation. A total lung score (TLS) was calculated. Clinical metrics and final diagnosis were extracted from the medical record.Results : TLS correlated positively with mortality (p=0.0), ventilator hours (p0.00), intensive care unit and hospital length of stay (p=0.00, p=0.0), and decreasing PaO2/FiO2 (p0.00). Agreement of findings was very good (kappa=0.83). Baseline TLS differed significantly between ARF categories (non-pulmonary, obstructive, and parenchymal disease).Conclusions : A quick, was associated with clinical metrics including mortality among a diverse population of patients intubated for ARF. In addition to diagnostic and prognostic information at the bedside, a standardized and quantifiable approach to PU provides objectivity in serial assessment and may enhance communication of findings between providers.
Background: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused rapid changes in head and neck cancer (HNC) care. ‘Real-time’ methods to monitor practice patterns can optimize provider safety and patient care.Methods: Head and neck surgeons from 14 institutions in the United States regularly contributed their practice patterns to a shared spreadsheet. Data from March 27th, 2020 to April 5th, 2020 was analyzed.Results: All institutions had significantly restricted HNC clinic evaluations. 2 institutions stopped free flap surgery with the remaining scheduling surgery by committee review. Factors contributing to reduced clinical volume included lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) (35%) and lack of rapid COVID-19 testing (86%).Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a reduction in HNC care. Rapid COVID-19 testing and correlation with infectious potential remain paramount to resuming the care of head and neck cancer patients. Cloud-based platforms to share practice patterns will be essential as the pandemic evolves.