Mikhail Kruglyakov

and 2 more

Directional drilling in the oil fields relies particularly on the “on-fly” measurements of the natural magnetic field (measurements while drilling; MWD); the MWD are eventually used to construct the well path. These measurements are the superposition of the signals from the internal, core and crustal, and external, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources and the noise from magnetic elements in the borehole assembly. The internal signals are mostly constant in time and accounted for through the Earth’s internal field models. The signals of external origin give rise to diurnal and irregular spatio-temporal magnetic field variations observable in the MWD. One of the common ways to mitigate the effects of these variations in the MWD is to correct readings for the data from an adjacent land-based magnetic observatory/site. This method assumes that the land-based signals are similar to those at the seabed drilling site. In this paper, we show that the sea level and seabed horizontal magnetic fields differ significantly, reaching up to 30\,\% of sea level values in many oceanic regions. We made this inference from the global forward modeling of the magnetic field using realistic models of conducting Earth and time-varying sources. To perform such modeling, we elaborated a numerical approach to efficiently calculate the spatio-temporal evolution of the magnetic field. Finally, we propose and validate a formalism allowing researchers to obtain trustworthy seabed signals using measurements at the adjacent land-based site and exploiting the modelling results, thus without needing additional measurements at the seabed site.

Elena Marshalko

and 6 more

Ground-based technological systems, such as power grids, can be affected by geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) during geomagnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms. This motivates the necessity to numerically simulate and, ultimately, forecast GIC. The prerequisite for the GIC modeling in the region of interest is the simulation of the ground geoelectric field (GEF) in the same region. The modeling of the GEF in its turn requires spatio-temporal specification of the source which generates the GEF, as well as an adequate regional model of the Earth’s electrical conductivity. In this paper we compare results of the GEF (and ground magnetic field) simulations using three different source models. Two models represent the source as a laterally varying sheet current flowing above the Earth. The first model is constructed using the results of a physics-based 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of near-Earth space, the second one uses ground-based magnetometers’ data and the Spherical Elementary Current Systems (SECS) method. The third model is based on a “plane wave” approximation which assumes that the source is locally laterally uniform. Fennoscandia is chosen as a study region and the simulations are performed for the 7-8 September 2017 geomagnetic storm. We conclude that ground magnetic field perturbations are reproduced more accurately using the source constructed via the SECS method compared to the source obtained on the basis of MHD simulation outputs. We also show that the difference between the GEF modeled using laterally nonuniform source and plane wave approximation is substantial in Fennoscandia.

Chaojian Chen

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