Longjiang Mu

and 7 more

A new version of the AWI Coupled Prediction System is developed based on the Alfred Wegener Institute Climate Model v3.0. Both the ocean and the atmosphere models are upgraded or replaced, reducing the computation time by a factor of 5 at a given resolution. This allowed us to increase the ensemble size from 12 to 30, maintaining a similar resolution in both model components. The online coupled data assimilation scheme now additionally utilizes sea-surface salinity and sea-level anomaly as well as temperature and salinity profile observations. Results from the data assimilation demonstrate that the sea-ice and ocean states are reasonably constrained. In particular, the temperature and salinity profile assimilation has mitigated systematic errors in the deeper ocean, although issues remain over polar regions where strong atmosphere-ocean-ice interaction occurs. One-year-long sea-ice forecasts initialized on January 1st, April 1st, July 1st and October 1st from 2003 to 2019 are described. To correct systematic forecast errors, sea-ice concentration from 2011 to 2019 is calibrated by trend-adjusted quantile mapping using the preceding forecasts from 2003 to 2010. The sea-ice edge raw forecast skill is within the range of operational global subseasonal-to-seasonal forecast systems, outperforming a climatological benchmark for about two weeks in the Arctic and about three weeks in the Antarctic. The calibration is much more effective in the Arctic: Calibrated sea-ice edge forecasts outperform climatology for about 45 days in the Arctic but only 27 days in the Antarctic. Both the raw and the calibrated forecast skill exhibit strong seasonal variations.

Lorenzo Zampieri

and 5 more

We have equipped the unstructured-mesh global sea-ice and ocean model FESOM2 with a set of physical parameterizations derived from the single-column sea-ice model Icepack. The update has substantially broadened the range of physical processes that can be represented by the model. The new features are directly implemented on the unstructured FESOM2 mesh, and thereby benefit from the flexibility that comes with it in terms of spatial resolution. A subset of the parameter space of three model configurations, with increasing complexity, has been calibrated with an iterative Green’s function optimization method to test fairly the impact of the model update on the sea-ice representation. Furthermore, to explore the sensitivity of the results to different atmospheric forcings, each model configuration was calibrated separately for the NCEP-CFSR/CFSv2 and ERA5 forcings. The results suggest that a complex model formulation leads to a better agreement between modeled and the observed sea-ice concentration and snow thickness, while differences are smaller for sea-ice thickness and drift speed. However, the choice of the atmospheric forcing also impacts the agreement of FESOM2 simulations and observations, with NCEP-CFSR/CFSv2 being particularly beneficial for the simulated sea-ice concentration and ERA5 for sea-ice drift speed. In this respect, our results indicate that the parameter calibration can better compensate for differences among atmospheric forcings in a simpler model (i.e. sea-ice has no heat capacity) than in more energy consistent formulations with a prognostic ice thickness distribution.