The process and mechanism of biomineralization and relevant physicochemical properties of mineral crystals are remarkably sophisticated multidisciplinary fields that include biology, chemistry, physics, and materials science. The components of the organic matter, structural construction of minerals, and related mechanical interaction, etc., could help to reveal the unique nature of the special mineralization process. Herein, the paper provides an overview of the biomineralization process from the perspective of molecular vibrational spectroscopy, including the physicochemical properties of biomineralized tissues, from physiological to applied mineralization. These physicochemical characteristics closely to the hierarchical mineralization process include biological crystal defects, chemical bonding, atomic doping, structural changes, and content changes in organic matter, along with the interface between biocrystals and organic matter as well as the specific mechanical effects for hardness and toughness. Based on those observations, the special physiological properties of mineralization for enamel and bone, as well as the possible mechanism of pathological mineralization and calcification such as atherosclerosis, tumor micro mineralization, and urolithiasis are also reviewed and discussed. Indeed, the clearly defined physicochemical properties of mineral crystals could pave the way for studies on the mechanisms and applications.
Owing to the emergence of energy storage and electric vehicles, the desire for safe high-energy-density energy storage devices has increased research interest in anode-free lithium metal batteries (AFLMBs). Unlike general LMBs, in which excess Li exists to compensate for the irreversible loss of Li, only the current collector is employed as an anode and paired with a lithiated cathode in the fabrication of AFLMBs. Owing to their unique cell configuration, AFLMBs have attractive characteristics, including the highest energy density, safety, and cost-effectiveness. However, developing AFLMBs with extended cyclability remains an issue for practical applications because the high reactivity of Li with limited inventory causes severely low Coulombic efficiency, poor cyclability, and dendrite growth. To address these issues, tremendous effort has been devoted to stabilize Li-metal anodes for AFLMBs. In this review, we highlight the importance and challenges of AFLMBs. Then, we thoroughly review diverse strategies, such as modifying current collectors, the formation of robust interfaces by engineering advanced electrolytes, and operation protocols. Finally, a future perspective on the strategy is provided to insight into the basis of future research. We hope that this review provides a comprehensive understanding by reviewing previous research and arousing more interest in this field.
Mechanical forces play a crucial role in biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels. Recent advancements in dynamic force spectroscopies (DFS) have enabled the application and measurement of forces and displacements with high resolutions, providing insights into the mechanical pathways involved in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and COVID-19. Among the various DFS techniques, biomembrane force probe (BFP) advancements have improved our ability to measure bond kinetics and cellular mechanosensing with pico-newton and nano-meter resolutions. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the classical BFP-DFS setup and highlight key advancements, including the development of dual biomembrane force probe (dBFP) and fluorescence biomembrane force probe (fBFP). BFP-DFS not only enables the investigation of dynamic bond behaviors on living cells, but also contributed significantly to our understanding of the specific ligand–receptor axes mediated cell mechanosensing. Besides, we explore the contribution of discoveries made possible by BFP-DFS in cancer biology, thrombosis, and inflammation, as well as predict future BFP upgrades to improve output and feasibility. Although BFP-DFS is still a niche research modality, its contribution to the growing field of cell mechanobiology is unparalleled, and its potential to elucidate novel therapeutic discoveries is significant.
As implantable medical electronics (IMEs) developed for healthcare monitoring and biomedical therapy are extensively explored and deployed clinically, the demand for non-invasive implantable biomedical electronics is rapidly surging. Current rigid and bulky implantable microelectronic power sources are prone to immune rejection and incision, or cannot provide enough energy for long-term use, which greatly limits the development of implantable medical devices. Herein, a comprehensive review of the historical development of IMEs and the applicable miniaturised power sources along with advantages and limitations is given. Despite recent advances in microfabrication techniques, biocompatible materials have facilitated the development of IMEs system toward non-invasive, ultra-flexible, bioresorbable, wireless and multifunctional, progress in the development of minimally invasive power sources in implantable systems has remained limited. Here we summarise three promising minimally invasive power sources, including energy storage devices (biodegradable primary batteries, rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors), human body energy harvesters (nanogenerators and biofuel cells) and wireless power transfer (far-field radiofrequency radiation, near-field wireless power, ultrasonic and photovoltaic power). The energy storage and harvesting mechanism, configurational design, output power and applications in vivo are discussed. It is expected to give a comprehensive understanding of the IMEs for painless health monitoring and biomedical therapy with long-term stable function
The realization of a complete techno-economy through a significant carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction in the atmosphere has been explored in various ways. CO2 reduction reactions (CO2RRs) can be induced using sustainable energy, including electric and solar energy, using systems such as electrochemical (EC) CO2RR and photoelectrochemical (PEC) systems. This study summarizes various fabrication strategies for non-noble metal, copper-based, and metal-organic framework-based catalysts with excellent FE for target carbon compounds, and for noble metals with low overvoltages. Even though EC and PEC systems exhibit high energy-conversion efficiency using excellent catalysts, they are not completely bias-free operations because they require external power. Therefore, photovoltaics, which can overcome the limitations of these systems, have been introduced. The utilization of silicon and perovskite solar cells for photovaltaics-assisted EC (PV-EC) and photovaltaics-assisted PEC (PV-PEC) CO2RR systems are cost efficient, and the III-V semiconductor photoabsorbers achieved high solar-to-carbon efficiency. This review focuses on all the members composed of PV-EC and PV-PEC CO2RR systems and then summarizes the special cell configurations, including the tandem and stacked structures. Moreover, current problems such as a low energy conversion rate, expensive PV, theoretical limitations, and scale-up to industrialization are discussed with the suggested direction.