We present EuropeAgriDB v1.0, a dataset of crop production and nitrogen (N) flows in European cropland 1961–2019. The dataset covers 26 present-day countries, detailing the cropland N harvests in 17 crop categories as well as cropland N inputs in synthetic fertilizers, manure, symbiotic fixation, and atmospheric deposition. The study builds on established methods but goes beyond previous research by combining data from FAOSTAT, Eurostat, and a range of national data sources. A key contribution is the comprehensive and detailed coverage of crop production, in particular fodder crops such as temporary grassland, green maize, and forage legumes. For these crops, we have combined the Eurostat crop production statistics database with a range of national databases, statistical yearbooks, and other sources. For other arable and permanent crops, we use the FAOSTAT database which apart from fodder crops offers the longest and most complete time series of crop production. Our crop production dataset, divided into 17 crop categories, provides a solid basis for understanding how crop mix and productivity have varied over time. A second key contribution is the detailed estimation of synthetic N fertilizer application to cropland and permanent grassland. We have assembled a comprehensive dataset based on a wide range of data sources and devised a rigorous method to process it. The result, we believe, is to date the most comprehensive and consistent estimate of the allocation of synthetic N fertilizer between cropland and permanent grassland in Europe. In summary, EuropeAgriDB v1.0 is a detailed, complete, and consistent dataset which will be useful both to understand Europe’s recent agricultural history and to make informed decisions about its future. This is particularly relevant in the current context of the EU Farm to Fork strategy, which requires major reduction in N inputs and surpluses and therefore the best possible quantification.