To guard the rhythm of the heart: Constructing a wall of ice with
surgical endocardial cryo-maze.
Surgical atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation is a valid option in cases of
concomitant cardiac surgery. Electroanatomical mapping before and after
the procedure can assess the substrate and verify durable lesion
formation. It is likely that a routine combined cardiosurgical and
electrophysiological approach may yield the greatest benefit for such